Boris was formed in 1992 as a quartet by students at Tokyo University in order to have a band with original member Nagata, who left in 1996. Although most if not all of their music falls under the category of “rock”, they have performed and recorded music in an unusual number of distinct genres. As to their recordings, many have been limited edition releases and they can be quite difficult to obtain in many parts of the world. The band has a proclivity toward alternate versions of releases, as well as re-using the same titles (and even the same or similar cover artwork), that makes their catalog rather esoteric and skewed toward obsessive collectors. On recordings, they usually capitalize the band’s name for material with more widespread appeal that comes from the “heart of rock” and use lowercase lettering for “experimental rock music that comes from inside and emanates outward” with more limited appeal — the capitalization is meant as a kind of guide for listeners. “FangsAnalSatan” is an alternate name for the band, to avoid having the name “Boris” appear too frequently. Although early artworks were more collaborative, eventually Atsuo came to design most of the band’s artwork, which frequently pays homage to releases by other bands through spoofs of notable album artwork.
Releases are presented below in chronological order by recording date (like a sessionography), though precise recording date information was not always available. Ratings and release information (dates, producer, etc.) on split and various artists compilations is provided only for the Boris recording(s). Genres are listed, though these are naturally a judgment call and not meant to be definitive. Boris operates across many genres, and on any given recording they may also blur the lines between genres.
♥♥♥ = top-tier; an essential
♥♥ = second tier; enjoyable but more for the confirmed fan; worthwhile after you’ve explored the essentials and still want more
♥ = third tier; a less significant album, more for completists, with perhaps only one or so notable songs
Alternate Version Notes: alternately titled Fangs Anal Satan Vol II — 4/2 Live!!, which included an image on the cassette in tribute to Flipper‘s logo; reissued on Archive II; two tracks reissues as bonus tracks on CD version of Barebones/Boris split
Alternate Version Notes: Expanded and remastered version released with different CD and vinyl artwork as Absolutego+ (Special Low Frequency Version) and Absolutego+ (b/w Dronevil2); the remastering gave the recording more low end and a different sound than the original; Absolutego+ (Special Low Frequency Version) initially came in an orange jewel case which was later switched to a clear jewel case, and Absolutego+ (b/w Dronevil2) also came in a red vinyl version
Recorded: July 1996; reissue bonus track: 1997, Sound Square, Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan
Recorded: June 21, December 21, 1996, August 8, 1997, August 2, 1998, and May 3, 2001, Koenji 20000V, Tokyo, Japan; August 9, 1997, Nagoya Music Farm, Nagoya, Japan; October 4, 1997, Shinjyuku Loft, Tokyo, Japan
Alternate Version Notes: This album has an orange cover and is sometimes identified as “Heavy Rocks (2002)” to distinguish the 2011 album of the same name with a nearly identical purple cover that contains entirely different music.
Recorded: July to September, 2001, Bazooka Studio, Tokyo, Japan
Alternate Version Notes: Re-released in 2005 with new artwork and expanded and modified contents. The most common reissue had a cover (or picture disc) that paid tribute to Nick Drake‘s Bryter Layter, and was expanded by seven minutes to have the same total runtime as the Drake album. 300 copies of an alternate artwork vinyl picture disc paid tribute to Venom‘s Welcome To Hell. On reissues, an alternate version of the opening “Introduction” is used. “Ibitsu” was also released on the split single The Dudley Corporation / Boris.
Recorded: January to March, 2003, Peace Music, Tokyo, Japan
Alternate Version Notes: There is different artwork between CD and vinyl versions. Also, some CDs are mastered as a single track, others divided into five tracks. There is a DVD Bootleg – Feedbacker- that is actually an official release of a live performance of the album
Recorded: July to October, 2003, Peace Music, Tokyo, Japan
Alternate Version Notes: Inoxia released a vinyl version and Catune released a CD version with different artwork but identical recorded content; Essence released a CD version in Brazil with different and expanded recorded content and also a limited box-set edition that added art prints, flyers, and dried flowers. The single “a bao a qu” is an extended version of the song from the album. This is a “fake” soundtrack; there is no film that the music accompanies
Alternate Version Notes: Initially released simultaneously as two more or less entirely different albums with the same title and artwork, these are referred to as the “Hardcore Version” and “Drone Version”; in 2013 a 2CD version was released (on 3 inch mini CDs) that intermingled material from both prior Vein albums in edited format, rather than reissuing each prior version on a separate disc as the packaging implies
Alternate Version Notes: Diwphalanx CD and vinyl versions have different artwork but identical contents; the Southern Lord CD has an expanded runtime with the same track sequencing; the Southern Lord vinyl has the same runtime as the Southern Lord CD but with a different track sequencing; the Sargent House/Daymare Deluxe Editions (CD/vinyl) follow the respective Southern Lord CD/vinyl editions and add a bonus disc (“Forbidden Songs”) of previously unreleased outtakes
Recorded: 2005, Sound Square, Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan
Alternate Version Notes: Released as a single disc and as a 2CD or 3LP version with “Alter Prelude” bonus disc; Japanese CD versions include the bonus track “The Sinking Belle (Black Sheep)” and Japanese 3LP versions include the bonus track “The Sinking Belle (White Sheep)”; Southern Lord 3LP editions came in differently colored vinyl or a picture disc; dedicated website (archived)
Recorded: October 2005, [Studio] Litho; December 2005, Aleph [Studio]
Producer(s): Sunn O)))
Genre(s): Drone doom, post rock
Key Track(s): “Her Lips Were Wet With Venom (satanoscillatemymetallicsonatas)” [Southern Lord 2CD version only]
Alternate Version Notes: Drag City reissue has alternate artwork and replaces “…And, I Want” with “No Sleep Till I Become Hollow”; Inoxia single LP edition follows original Pedal version; Inoxia 2LP box set features the Pedal version of the album on clear vinyl, a bonus disc containing two bonus ambient tracks on clear vinyl, a DVD featuring the music video for “Rainbow,” and a 50-page photo book; there is also a promo-only Drag City version with still further alternate (stock) artwork
Recorded: January to July 2006, Peace Music, Tokyo, Japan
Alternate Version Notes: This was a promotional-only digital download collection featuring two new live tracks and selected tracks compiled from prior albums, and was originally an exclusive with purchases of Smile from an on-line retailer; “You Were Holding An Umbrella (Live)” also appeared on the contemporaneous various artists label sampler Invocation of Sacred Resonance I
Studio/Live: Live (previously unreleased material)
Recorded: October 16, 2007, Echoplex, Los Angeles, CA, USA (previously unreleased material)
Alternate Version Notes: This album exists in two substantially different versions — You Ishihara mixed the Japanese (Diwphalanx) version of the album while Souichiro Nakamura mixed the US (Southern Lord) version — which are so different that some discographies list them as separate and distinct albums; Southern Lord also released a CD version with a bonus DVD containing music videos and added two bonus tracks to the US vinyl edition
Alternate Version Notes: Japanese LP version included different versions of five tracks than CD; US CD had different track sequencing than Japanese CD and substitutes the song “Luna” for “Black Original”
Recorded: Sound Square, Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan
Alternate Version Notes: Released as a split LP (though really only of EP length) and also as a digital EP (entitled Cosmos) with just the three Boris tracks; vinyl LP issues were pressed on differently colored vinyl
Alternate Version Notes: Released initially as an Expanded Edition with two discs of a live show called “Gensho at Fever 11272015”; later issues omit the live show, and have different sequencing between CD and vinyl editions but otherwise the same content; the 4LP version was also pressed in clear vinyl for a “family and friends” edition not offered for sale
Studio/Live: Studio, live (expanded edition only)
Recorded: 2016, Sound Square, Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan; Live tracks on Expanded Edition: November 27, 2015, Fever, Tokyo, Japan
Born: June 4, 1945, Chicago, IL, United States
Currently: Connecticut, United States
In discussing “Braxton’s misleadingly forbidding aesthetic[,]” The Penguin Guide to Jazz Recordings (Ninth ed.) comments that “Braxton’s music requires — and deserves — demystification . . . .” Though it might be quite counter to Braxton’s artistic intents to demystify anything, consider this list a humble attempt to offer an entryway into his catalog of recorded works, which is nothing if not staggeringly large. He has released dozens of albums as a leader, many on what can fairly be called “micro labels”. Most problematic for a listener interested in Braxton is that his recordings are frequently out-of-print, or available only in a form that’s rather expensive. To complicate matters, many of his albums that have consistently remained in print are not necessarily his best. Fortunately, his breakthrough recordings for major label Arista Records have been reissued — something long overdue — on the collection The Complete Arista Recordings of Anthony Braxton, which is expensive but handsomely packaged. Recordings for Hat Hut Records tend to go in and out of print, as the label releases albums only in limited editions but tends to offer reissues eventually. Albums on Leo Records are likely in print, but may not be available just anywhere. The availability of recordings on other labels varies considerably. Braxton’s own New Braxton House label has recently begun offering digital downloads of various recordings. Rather than focus only on recordings currently in print, we have focus on what are the best, most significant (to Braxton’s career) and most accessible recordings, simply noting as best we can what is in print.
Braxton’s discography can seem, at first glance, rather monolithic; the more things change, the more they stay the same. In other words, his later recordings will almost invariably find precedent in his earlier recordings, even in his very earliest as a leader. Yet there have been developments, mostly in the form of breakthroughs that brought certain elements into greater focus, or that introduced new and different variations on existing approaches. The problem with Braxton’s reputation, too, is that he’s been saddled with descriptions like challenging, daunting, intimidating — you name it. Yet his astute biographer (of sorts) Graham Lock noted on meeting Braxton for the first time, “This is not the super-cold, super-brain of media report; this is a music lover.” As John Litweiler wrote, “His most engaging quality is his nervous vitality . . . [which] results from a romantic attitude that keeps finding new worlds to explore as well as familiar forms to revisit and refreshen.” Braxton’s music may not be for everyone. But there is plenty of excitement, joy, playfulness and more in his music. And, in spite of much puzzlement, bewilderment and outright hostility on the part of some critics, his music largely avoids bitterness or condescension. Yet it helps to be prepared for music that is simply different from what you’ve heard before, because Braxton is often trying to do something “new”. Anyway, consider this litmus test: if you’ve ever had a real conversation with someone about music, then you’re a potential Braxton fan. If not, and you don’t see that happening, then it may be best to move on to other interests and bypass Braxton entirely. To draw another analogy, if you don’t like books that are about the writing, but simply want a narrative where “stuff happens,” then Braxton might not be for you. There is nothing wrong with that, just find what you like, which will probably be elsewhere.
From the beginning of his career, Braxton took particular influence from “cool” saxophonists Warne Marsh and Paul Desmond. But that is not to mention mystical (and even outer space) influences from Sun Ra, a little fire from John Coltrane, the compositional insights of Arnold Schönberg, and the rhythm and wit of Fats Waller. Or Braxton’s faculty on a whole armada of instruments, including obscure reeds from the lowest registers (contrabass clarinet and contrabass saxophone) to the highest (sopranino saxophone). Much of his music though deals with juxtaposition and combinatorial experiments. Braxton likes to dig into musical history (whether of humankind or simply of his own songbook) and examine bits and pieces, draw different ones together, and offer up the results for what they portend for the future. In many ways, it’s the use of the past in forward-looking ways that Braxton developed from his association with the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) that separates his oeuvre from vaguely similar efforts by the likes of, say, James Carter — someone far more visceral and sentimentally emotive than the calm, cerebral and thoughtful Braxton — or even Sun Ra — someone whose works also turned on a dime from abstraction to the traditional but was far more indebted to the swing era than the younger Braxton, who grew up after that era had passed. But Braxton’s compositional efforts are also focused on new methods of organizing musical information, and perhaps less so on what that information might be. In that respect, the most similar musical traveler out there is Karlheinz Stockhausen. For Braxton, there are three types of musicians, none of which are meant to be a value judgment: restructuralists (who come up with new ways of thinking), stylists (who expand upon the restructuralists’ new ways of thinking), and traditionalists (who operate within a defined space). Braxton considers himself a restructuralist, though he makes efforts to record music “in the tradition” every few years.
A legend is provided below explaining some of the information we have listed for each entry on this list. Each entry includes some release information, with recording date(s), and a “key track” — meant to give you a taste or focal point for each album (especially useful for those who want to buy downloads). Selections are organized chronologically by recording date. We have made an attempt to divide Braxton’s career into different periods, but those are somewhat arbitrary on our part. There is good material from all periods. We have also provided a listing for a few additional resources that you might want to investigate if you have an interest, like Graham Lock’s excellent Forces in Motion book. As a final note, though Braxton’s compositions are identified by a composition number, most have a title that is graphical in nature (the image heading this list is our own version of a Braxton title). Braxton has explained, “I say the listener should look at the titles and enjoy them or not enjoy them, but I don’t think you need to understand them in order to listen to the music.” At least for the time being, we have not reproduced Braxton’s graphical titles.
The Early Years; AACM; Parisian Expat; Breaking Out: 1967-73
Braxton volunteered for the U.S. Army and played in military bands. He returned to his native Chicago, and was an early member of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM). He relocated to Paris, but then returned to the United States and lived in New York in Ornette Coleman‘s basement, making money as a chess hustler (and occasional pool hustler). He then took up music again and returned to Paris.
Recorded: 1969, Parkway Community Center, Chicago, IL
Difficulty Rating: Medium
Key Track(s): “To pianist Cecil Taylor”
A free jazz masterpiece. But here’s the thing, no one in the music ever set out to make “free jazz” — it’s a common misconception about so-called “free” jazz that the performers of said music simply throw out the rules of jazz and make a lot of noise. What’s free about the music of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and those who have followed them is that each performer has created their own set of rules to work with, not that they’ve completely thrown out all sense of structure and form. Which of course means that the listener has to work harder — to listen closer than normal and figure things out, then to readjust again to different performers with their own approaches, or listen hard again even when a performer (like Braxton) chooses to change his/her own methods. And this release – Braxton’s third under his own name – is his calling card, cataloging several approaches and strategies he uses in the creation of his music just as Ornette Coleman’s pre-Atlantic albums merely lay the groundwork for his real arrival with The Shape of Jazz to Come. So if Braxton’s earlier records announce him as a member of the AACM, working within the broader ideas essayed by the organization, this one’s pure Anthony Braxton — there’s no more naked way in music than solo performance to open yourself up — and what Braxton has laid down showcases a performer of staggering diversity. It’s not always easy — the tributes to John Cage and Leroy Jenkins in particular can be trying for many ears not attuned to this sort of things — but there are pieces, especially his tribute to Ann and Peter Allen, which are remarkably delicate, introspective, even lovely. There are other solo albums in his extensive catalog that are perhaps easier to digest — a double album of solo alto saxophone is a bit of an undertaking, even for those predisposed to enjoying it, and one might seek out an album of equal quality like Alto Saxophone Improvisations 1979 — but as an introduction to Braxton and his ideas, this is a perfect summary.
Release Notes: A/K/A No More White Gloves; Out of Print
Recorded: May 19, 1970, Washington Square Methodist Church (Peace Church), New York, NY
Category: Small Group
Braxton moved to Paris at the end of the 1960s, along with many other jazz players. While some artists found success there, like Art Ensemble of Chicago, Braxton’s group Creative Construction Company did not. So he returned to the United States and lived in New York. He gave up music for a time. But then a reunion show with Creative Construction Company, featuring guests Muhal Richard Abrams, Richard Davis and Steve McCall, brought him out of his temporary retirement. That reunion show (part of which is featured on this album) brought Braxton into contact with Chick Corea, who offered an invitation to his new group Circle.
Recorded: February 21, 1971, Maison de l’O.R.T.F., Paris, France
Category: Small Group, Sideman
Difficulty Rating: medium
Key Track(s): “Nefertitti” (sic)
On the heels of Chick Corea‘s 1971 A.R.C. album and trio with Dave Holland and Barry Altschul (and no matter how this is billed feels at this reserve like an instrumental piece of development in Corea’s work, moreso than the development of the other participants) Braxton was invited to join the group formally before it was named after sitting in with the trio. Braxton’s catalog to this point had consisted mostly of works in a very abstract realm, often owing to the tactics of the AACM, and this is one of the earliest pieces of him working in a more identifiably “jazzy” realm, tackling a group of originals (including one of Braxton’s own), a standard (“No Greater Love”), and an interesting recent composition by Wayne Shorter (“Nefertitti” (sic)) that was also part of A.R.C.’s repertoire. And as with the trio, however collaborative the process of the music-making may have been, Corea is the leader here – he makes all the announcements on mike, wrote the liner notes and (though I haven’t measured it strictly) seems to be allotted the most solo space. But Braxton crashes the party, barnstorms the proceedings on “Nefertiti,” deconstructing the work with the fervor he’d bring to his later approaches to standards, while his own “73º Kelvin (Variation – 3)” is for me the most interesting original here, showcasing for the first time on a widely available record the lengthy lines learned from one of his great influences — Lennie Tristano — that later would become one of his signature approaches to composing melodies. For three long pieces plus a series of solos and duets, the group works over their material in a fine example of the sort of rooted jazz with free leanings that Eric Dolphy liked to call “inside and outside at the same time.” As for Braxton? Here’s some of the earliest evidence that when he wanted to he could play it straighter, that his range could extend over not just the abstract sounds of an outsider, but could and did incorporate “the tradition” in the makeup of the music.
Review: Circle broke up, leaving Braxton stranded (a somewhat common circumstance for touring musicians) in Los Angeles. He eventually made his way back to Paris. One notable development of this new period was that he started to record standards. Because his compositions can seem strange to some, standards provide something of a simplification. There are points of reference to latch on to. While the rhythm section here is certainly competent, like some early Cecil Taylor albums one gets the feeling the rhythm section isn’t quite ready to go to all the same places as Braxton. So this isn’t quite the pinnacle of what he could do. Nonetheless, this is still a fine album, with the standards showing an affinity — and faculty — for be-bop, with a little more modern spin on it of course. The new compositions are certainly more challenging, providing an abrupt but still comfortable contrast. Most significantly this transitional album marks a growing maturity in Braxton’s recordings, as well as in his own performance style. Things would only get better from here. But this album demonstrated that as much as he tried to do things never heard before, he still had a keen interest in the jazz tradition and what it offers for the present and future. It also is concrete (and early) proof his recordings can be downright approachable at times.
Release Notes: available on CD, vinyl and digitally
Recorded: November 30, 1972, Allegro Studio, New York, NY
Category: Small Group, Sideman
Difficulty Rating: Easy
Key Track(s): “Four Winds”
It is fairly common for jazz musicians to serve an apprenticeship as a sideman. Examples are everywhere, like Miles Davis with Charlie Parker, John Coltrane with Miles Davis. Anthony Braxton never really did that, at least not as a precursor to a solo career. Although his stint with Circle came closest, he only infrequently played a supporting role to another bandleader — much like major influence Ornette Coleman. Conference of the Birds is one of his relatively few appearances as a sideman. The group is mostly Circle alumni, plus Sam Rivers. This album isn’t a showcase for Braxton by any means, but it’s still a great one. Skeptics might well start here before moving into Braxton’s own catalog.
The Arista Years; Small Groups to Large-Scale Works; Side Projects: 1974-80
Braxton was offered (and accepted) a contract with the new major label Arista Records, as its first jazz artist signing. His visibility rose considerably worldwide, and many listeners only know his recordings from this period. Musically, he began to expand and refine ideas from his early period. He met his wife Nickie just before leaving Paris to permanently return to the United States.
Recorded: July 1-2, 1975, Generation Sound Studios, New York, NY
Category: Small Group
Difficulty Rating: Easy
Key Track(s): “Opus 23 G”
A real stunner of an album and one of Braxton’s all-time best small group records. In it, he and his group (Dave Holland and Barry Altschul from several recent works with Braxton, plus Kenny Wheeler on trumpet to round out the proceedings) navigate a lot of territory with aplomb, working in several modes with equal confidence. The record opens on a duet, Holland and Braxton doing a take on “You Stepped Out of a Dream” and it’s a lovely intro to the record, almost a way of saying to the doubters that what is to follow comes from the same folks who made this piece. On the heels of this is the spare, moody “Comp. 23 H” which deals a lot in coloration more than heavy soloing, but provides an excellent showcase for drummer Altschul nonetheless. Closing the A-side is “Comp. 23 G,” perhaps the finest thing on the album as it perfectly straddles the line between the experimentation and eccentricity of Braxton’s approaches and a more listenable and straightforward approach to same — it’s essentially a head-and-solos piece, though there’s such a long “head” line at the beginning, the soloists move away from the chords, and the rhythm is so fragmented that it doesn’t feel like the standard blowing piece. Still, after the lengthy unison line that starts it, Braxton takes a solo, building in intensity until the climax of his spot and then giving way to Wheeler’s superb work, which in turn allows the rhythm section to shine afterward (though “rhythm section” is a belittling phrase in music such as this where all four players are contributing fully and equally). The B-side opens with the lengthy, dramatic “Comp. 23 E,” a showcase for Braxton in all his glory. It moves through several sequences and he changes horns accordingly — alto sax, flute (twice), and the oddball sound of the contrabass clarinet — to fit the mood of the rest of what’s happening. Again, a slow dramatic build takes place, complete with peaks and valleys, ranging from intense to eerie, over the 17+ minutes of the piece. It’s something of a grand statement, and if there are other catchier pieces on the record there’s nothing this ambitious — in fact there’s little like it in his catalog. The record closes on “Comp. 40 M,” a relatively brief blowout over a bass vamp — another rare thing in the Braxton catalog — that’s sort of like a compact version of “Comp. 23 G,” but provides something like a crooked dance number as it goes toward the fadeout. Alongside Holland’s Conference of the Birds, this is one of the best entry points to Braxton’s music-world for the adventurous listener — accessible enough for most, yet an undiluted version of what he does.
Recorded: June 10, 1976, Creative Music Festival, Mount Tremper, NY, September 16, 1976, Bearsville Sound, Woodstock, NY
Category: Small Group, Collaboration
Difficulty Rating: Medium/Difficult
Key Track(s): Since there are only two side long tracks, either one will suffice. You’ll know within two minutes of either if this is for you.
Quick — what’s the definition of “jazz”? If your answer is “swung triplets” or any derivative of the word “swing” you can just move on to the next piece. But if that’s your criteria, you’re probably not reading this list anyway. If your answer was “conversation” or some similar idea then you ought to treat yourself to this album, tagged as difficult only because there’s not much like it out there in Braxton’s — or anyone’s — catalog that can give you something similar by which to assess it. Or is there? Throughout two long pieces, Braxton, with his usual array of reeds, duets with a remarkably sensitive Teitelbaum, whose moog synths respond to, query, provoke, and challenge Braxton constantly. There’s a remarkable give and take between the performers, and every time one of them moves into another area of sound — rhythmic, harmonic, melodic, or simply sonic — the other immediately rises to the challenge, meets him there, and moves the dialogue forward yet again. It’s beautiful, bracing, challenging, witty, and even entertaining in the right proportions. Braxton’s music hits all kinds of areas along the spectrum from more composed, fully-formed pieces over to largely improvised works, with this definitely leaning toward the latter, and a great example of such things. So is it so unique? Yes and no — if you have some familiarity with other freely improvised duets — like those of Cecil Taylor in his incredible run of Berlin concerts, or for that matter Taylor and Max Roach, Braxton and Max Roach, or Braxton and Derek Bailey — this may not be so alien. It’s new to hear it done with a moog, yes, but not something completely unknown to you in approach. But aside from Braxton’s duets with Bailey, which I feel are less successful, I can’t off the top of my head think of anything in this style of duetting that predates it. It’s great to hear Braxton, rooted in the African-American jazz tradition but with an ear toward European avant-garde classicism working alongside Teitelbaum, whose background in serial composition had only a few years before this turned his ear toward the forward-thinking jazz of Coltrane, Coleman, and Taylor. Kindred spirits, for sure.
Recorded: July 20, 1975, Montreux Jazz Festival, Montreux, Switzerland; November 4 and 6, 1976, Berlin Jazz Days, West Berlin, West Germany
Category: Small Group, Orchestra
Difficulty Rating: Medium
Review: The Montreux/Berlin Concerts is one of many highlights from Braxton’s tenure on the Arista Records label. It features performances from two different European festivals in 1975 and 1976. The recordings mostly are from two similar quartets with Dave Holland (b), Barry Altschul (d), and either Kenny Wheeler (t) or George Lewis (tb), plus one side-long recording with The Berlin New Music Group. In many ways this is a culmination of many things Braxton was doing through the 1970s. Much like a comedian who will test out new material in various venues first and then repeat the best and most successful bits and routines for a big show or video/recording, Braxton is not so much trying out new methods here (with the exception of the orchestral track with The Berlin New Music Group) as much as delivering something with techniques he (and his bands) had already perfected. What makes the album so special is that there are some very fine performances here. Arguably, Braxton never led a small combo better than the ones here. And these are stellar performances even from this impressive cast of characters. In Braxton’s world, he deals with “musical informations”. There is certainly a lot of information being exchanged on these sets. Each performer is contributing–solo, spotlight time is shared fairly equally.
When Braxton was the first jazz signing to the new major label Arista, he promised to be some kind of crossover success (see the liner notes to The Complete Arista Recordings of Anthony Braxton and a November 2008 essay in The Wire magazine discussing its release). Leading up to his tenure with Arista, he had recorded works that extended into the territory of modern composition (of the likes of John Cage and the Fluxus movement), but he also worked with more traditional jazz material. He drifted back and forth between the twin poles of traditional jazz and avant-garde composition. But most of the time these were shifts between isolated modes, not truly a “crossover” in the sense of a meeting and melding. On The Montreux/Berlin Concerts he does cross the divide between traditional jazz and modern composition, achieving a synthesis of both within any given piece. There is definitely a sense of connection to traditional jazz throughout. Often a bouncing, free-wheeling, syncopated beat as if from an old Fats Waller tune will be unmistakable. Yet the speed and density of it all will not permit confusion with anything from Waller’s era. The intervals, squeaks and new performance techniques also push this well beyond just the tradition. Again, though, this is crossover music, and so this music is not completely of the “new music” realm of abstraction. It inserts, modifies, expands, deconstructs, and borrows from the tradition at will, but never feels constrained by it. It is the much talked-about but less frequently achieved notion of playing “inside” and “outside” at the same time. This is an album by an artist that has found his voice and is using it to the best of his abilities. It makes for an excellent listen.
Recorded: May 12. 1978, Großer Sendesaal WDR, Köln, West Germany
Difficulty Rating: easy-medium
Key Track(s): Comp. 58
In effect, this supplants the need for the enjoyable Creative Orchestra Music 1976, by allowing the ensemble more space for improvisation and movement, with hatArt’s usual superb sound (even in this live setting) and extended versions of four of the studio album’s cuts (the two most abstract pieces are excised here, presumably because that sort of spacious music works better in your own home than a concert hall). Essentially, these are pieces that are relatively jazz-like (and in the case of “Comp. 58,” march-like) filtered through the prism of Braxton’s compositional strategies and post-“free” playing techniques by the ensemble, linked together by completely unstructured “free” material (the “Language Improvisations” noted in the first track) making improvised segues between the pieces. Marilyn Crispell, who’d go on to make a great mark with Braxton in a few short years, sounds terrific throughout and Bob Ostertag’s sculpted synthetic soundscapes also add an element of unsettling weirdness that still feels perfectly right within the context of Braxton’s approach to “jazz.” And when the whole ensemble closes things with the march of “Comp. 58,” which starts out Sousa-like, then slowly goes off the rails, only to draw everything back together in its stellar climax, you know you’re in the hands of a master.
Recorded: September 13-15, 1980, Studio Ricordi, Milano, Italy
Category: Composer/Conductor Only
Difficulty Rating: Medium
Key Track(s): “Comp. 95”
Braxton was strongly influenced by a number of composers, including Karlheinz Stockhausen, John Cage, Arnold Schönberg, Ruth Crawford Seeger and Hildegard von Bingen. For Two Pianos takes primary influence from Schönberg. It was especially written for the two performers featured here: Frederic Rzewski and Ursula Oppens, each playing piano as well as melodica and zither. It is a work of ritual and ceremonial construction. The score is 46 pages, and the musicians perform in costume (floor-length hooded cloaks). The mystical, cryptic messages encoded in the music can, superficially, seem ominous, with simple repeating figures, but on deeper inspection the interaction of the performers is hopeful. A popular analogue is perhaps Scott Walker‘s The Drift. Of note here is that this piece has nothing whatsoever to do with jazz, proof — if any were needed — that Braxton’s interests and talents go well beyond that genre. It may be true that not all of the man’s compositions are equally good or successful, and some smack of excess and self-indulgence, but this is one of his better-realized recordings of this type. Braxton has noted his many difficulties in getting his non-jazz compositions performed and recorded, something he attributes in large part to racism.
The Second Great Quartet(s); Professor Braxton: 1981-93
With his major label contract concluded, Braxton entered a period of relative poverty, when he lost his house and couldn’t pay for heat. Then he formed a pair of renowned quartets. He also entered academia, first with a position at Mills College in Oakland, California, and later with a professorship at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut (were he remains as of this writing). During the 1980s he introduced many new ideas to his music, rather than merely expanding upon what he did in the 1970s.
Recorded: September 10-11, 1984, Vanguard Studios, New York, NY
Category: Small Group
Difficulty Rating: Easy-medium
Key Track(s): “Composition No. 115”
In the 1980s and into the early 1990s, Braxton led two quartets that have garnered special reputations among his admirers. The first (featured here) included Marilyn Crispell (p), Gerry Hemingway (d), and John Lindberg (b). After a falling out between Braxton and Lindberg, Mark Dresser took over on bass. The trio of recordings with the latter incarnation of the great 80s quartet on a 1985 tour of England tend to receive more attention, but Six Compositions (Quartet) 1984 is a very good place to get your feet wet with Braxton’s 80s output. Vestiges of bop stylings are more pronounced than in many later works of that decade. Although “Composition No. 114 (+ 108A)” proves that Braxton’s methods can be totally ineffective at times, the rest of the album is good — and rather welcoming. The musicians have a great rapport. Pianist Marilyn Crispell deserves special attention here.
Recorded: January 31, 1989, Beall Hall, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR
Difficulty Rating: Medium
Key Track(s): “Composition No. 112”
Braxton’s album with the Northwest Creative Orchestra marked a turning point in his orchestral jazz music. This was the beginning of a new phase that left behind many of the reference points to traditional big band jazz that appeared sporadically through many earlier works and recordings. Influences from some of Sun Ra‘s and Ornette Coleman‘s large-scale works became a little more clear. He also was transitioning to bands made up of students, as he would do with smaller groups as well. One fault of this recording is that Braxton on alto sax is usually buried in the mix, but the band plays well so that’s not a major problem. The album’s main strength is that despite featuring such unique and daring music, it maintains fluid and almost upbeat qualities that definitely stand out.
Recorded: July 19, 1993, Kuumbwa Jazz Center, Santa Cruz, CA
Category: Small Group
Difficulty Rating: medium-difficult
Key Track(s): no specific track, as both discs consist of long suites of music.
The Later Years; MacArthur “Genius” Fellowship; More New Working Methods and Musical Informations: Ghost Trance Music, Sonic Genome, Falling River Musics, Echo Echo Mirror House, SuperCollider, etc.: 1994-present
Braxton developed various new musical techniques and forms in his later years. Often these expanded and elaborated upon ideas first germinated in the 1980s. In 1994 he received a MacArthur Fellowship, referred to informally as the “Genius Grant.” For a considerable time during this period his music revolved around his Ghost Trance Music compositions. He performed and recorded extensively with his students and former students. In the 1990s he operated his own record label Braxton House, which went inactive but was revived along with a new online label New Braxton House in 2011. There has been no slowing down of either the quantity or intensity of his work compared to anything before.
Recorded: March 16-19, 2006, Iridium Jazz Club, New York, NY, (DVD interview from March 17, 2006 at Columbia University, Dodge Hall, New York, NY)
Category: Large Group
Difficulty Rating: Medium
Key Track(s): “Composition No. 350”
Braxton only got better and better in his later years. This lavish and massive box set may seem imposing, but it’s among the best recordings of his long career. He’s working with a large ensemble, his 12+1tet, and performing many of his last Ghost Trance Music compositions. Most of the band members are his students or former students. These musicians know the music and bring a wealth of personality to it. In many ways, this album is the culmination and fullest realization of things Braxton had been working on since his second great quartet was formed in the 1980s. In short, he has created a context to use and reuse his compositions in a way that places minimal limitations on the performers while maximizing the opportunities for constructive group improvisation. It is music like this that places Braxton squarely in the Ornette Coleman school that makes composition a mechanism to achieve what purely “free” playing usually doesn’t. The large ensemble provides a full palate to work with. One distinctive feature is the the use of “pulse tracks”, which provide notated passages broken up with brief open periods for free improvisation. The effect is usually to have a steady rhythm interrupted by slippery interludes — not unlike the opening “Hell” segment of like-minded film director Jean-Luc Godard‘s film Notre musique [Our Music]with its images frozen and advanced in stuttering, lurching movements. This might be as good as any place to start with Braxton, and it certainly belongs near the top of the list of his most essential recordings.
Recorded: May 20, 2007, Festival International de Musique Actuelle, Victoriaville, Quebec, Canada
Category: Small Group
Difficulty Rating: Medium
Key Track(s): “Composition N° 323c”
Recorded by Braxton’s Diamond Curtain Wall Trio, which uses the SuperCollider software program during performance, this is something of an alternate path from Ghost Trance Music. Rather than focusing on composition as the guiding and organizational force pushing the music along, the software program moderates the interactions of the performers to a significant degree. Performers are presented with Braxton’s graphical Falling River Music notation (here’s an example photo of a different piece), and the SuperCollider program plays audio patches that Braxton has developed. The resultant music is a little more dynamic — or at least ominous — than a lot of Ghost Trance Music. Braxton had along a lot of his largest saxophones, and they make commanding appearances. Braxton plays so well here you would hardly guess at his advancing years. This trio is also special in that Mary Halvorson (g) and Taylor Ho Bynum (t) are two of the most notable performers to play regularly with Braxton in his later years.
Recorded: March 18-22, 2010, Systems Two, New York, NY
Category: Orchestra, Composer/Conductor Only [[??]]
Top 5’s From Syd and Patrick
We have each picked our top five favorite Braxton albums and five songs from albums not featured on the list above, as a sort of alternate ways to look at his catalog. Consider this a shortened way for us to recommend some good records and songs to a newcomer. For clarification, any single “songs” that make up an entire album are excluded from the five song selections lists below, and are only represented in the album picks.
Small Combo (Duos, Trios, Quartets, Quintets, Sextets)
Large Group (Octets, 12tets, etc.)
Composer/Conductor Only (does not perform)
A fairly objective view of how challenging the music is in relation to other Braxton recordings. If you want a challenge, by all means start at the “difficult” level records and work your way out from there. If you want something more in line with traditional jazz or something more easily digested, you might steer toward the “easy” titles and gauge your responses from there. We both feel that there is a lot of good music in all three categories.
Support Anthony Braxton! – Braxton is still performing and recording. Go see him perform! Buy his records!
The Tri-Centric Foundation – official site, including the home of the New Braxton House label, offering albums for download. Also offers a selection of free downloads of bootleg recordings, and subscriptions to a free e-mail newsletter.
Braxton Musical Systems – brief introductions to the various musical systems (compositional/performance methods) Braxton has used.
Forces in Motion: The Music and Thoughts of Anthony Braxton [A/K/A Forces in Motion : Anthony Braxton and the Meta-Reality of Creative Music] (by Graham Lock) – this document of a 1985 tour of England with extensive interviews of Braxton is probably the place to start if you want to read about Braxton. There is a 30th anniversary edition available with a new chapter
A guide to the music of Tom Zé. His professional musical career spanned half a century (and counting), though today many of his recordings are out of print — even in his native Brazil. What is available in the United States tends to skew toward his later recordings, which has the unfortunate effect of placing some of his finest material out of reach. His solo recordings are listed below divided into two time periods. His collaborations are listed separately — some being mere guest appearances while other are more extensive. Pursuant to the legend below, ratings are assigned to each, though Zé hardly has any bad releases so bear in mind these are just relative assessments. Links to other resources, including books and films, are provided at the end.
This is still under construction.
Sung and Spoken Journalism (Imprensa cantada e falada): A Brief Introduction
Birth Name: Antonio José Santana Martins
Born: October 11, 1936, Irará, Bahia, Brazil
Antonio José Santana Martins, who adopted the stage name Tom Zé, was born in the dry interior region of the Brazilian state of Bahia. He has described his hometown of Irará as “pre-Gutenbergian” (in reference to the inventor of the movable type printing press). His father won the lottery, which allowed his family to live comfortably in an otherwise poor and arid rural region. He moved to Salvador, the largest city in Bahia located along the Atlantic coast, to attend the University of Bahia. He studied music. He had an interest in composers like John Cage and Charles Ives. Although Brazil had a troubled legacy as a former Portuguese colony (and briefly was the seat of the Portuguese capital), and was the last country in the western hemisphere to ban slavery, social democratic president João Goulart made some modest reforms and the Brazilian universities recruited professors from Europe to bolster their musical (and other) programs. A military coup in 1964, supported by the United States, overthrew Goulart and installed a series of military “presidents” who ruled until 1985. Zé relocated to São Paulo, was associated with a collection of leftist intellectuals in the 1960s, and became part of the tropicália (A/K/A tropicalismo) movement, the most prominent members (tropicalistas) of which were mostly Bahian too. The (AI5) “coup within a coup” in 1968 brought harsher treatment of leftists and some of the tropicalistas. While considered a key part of tropicália, he also seemed outside it at the same time, never contained by its key precepts despite his obvious sympathies and contributions. His career faltered as the 1970s wore on. By the 1990s he was considering working at a gas station when he was approached by the U.S. musician David Byrne (of Talking Heads), who had come across a Zé record and later sought him out (with the help of Brazilian-raised musician Arto Lindsay) to sign him to a new label. Byrne was largely responsible for reviving Zé’s commercial career and introducing him to international audiences. Though in many respects, Zé’s albums on Bryne’s Luaka Bop label are somewhat over-represented in English-speaking countries.
Caetano Veloso has described Zé’s tenaciously archaic yet inventive approach to music as “bizarrely elegant” and his attitude (reflected in his music too) as having an “ironic, distant sense of humor” that is “at once intimate and estranged[.]” An incident on a plane that Veloso recounts is a fitting summary of a common effect of Zé’s music, when Zé made an absurd request for a particular drink (cachaça) on the plane, then, when it was not available, demanded the stewardess to stop the “caravel” (mid-flight) so he could leave, noting, “we were unnerved by the determination with which [the demand] was made, the sheer imposition of his will.” Veloso was impressed with how “the sincerity of [Zé’s] defiance exposed the absurd pretense of refinement” around him. This was in so many ways a fitting metanymn for the entire tropicália movement. Recurring themes in Zé’s music involve tilting against colonial legacies (in the sense of Frantz Fanon) and making demands that emerge from leftist ideologies deemed impossible in his own time. Zé considers himself a performer of limited means. He has referred to at least some of what he does as sung and spoken journalism. In the 1970s he experimented with what can be called a homemade sampler, and has long utilized homemade instruments (like Harry Partch, or Tom Waits in the mid-1980s and early 90s).
After his comeback in the early 1990s, the influence of animated Brazilian folk dance musics from northern regions, like the forró and coco of Luiz Gonzaga and especially Jackson do Pandeiro, were more apparent in his own recordings. He continued working long after others would consider retirement. There is a tenacious sense of experimentation that is constant throughout Tom Zé’s career. He has toured internationally, though availability of his albums outside Brazil can be limited, even his most famous recordings.
This is a guide to the music of CAN. Releases are divided into full albums, miscellany (mostly archival, soundtrack, and outtake collections), and non-album singles, with each section arranged chronologically by recording date. Other resources — books, films, a soundtrack filmography, and web sites — are listed at the end.
This is not quite complete yet.
A Brief Introduction:
CAN was formed in the late 1960s in Köln (Cologne), in what was then West Germany. The band approached rock and pop music with sort of an outsider’s perspective, very much the way pianist/composer Cecil Taylor approached jazz in a unique way from the standpoint of formal training in modern classical music. There was a tacit affinity in their worldview to the so-called “New Left” movement of the late 1960s. The band is also cited as a pillar of the “krautrock” movement that sought to reconstruct a new German cultural identity following the defeat of the Nazis by the Soviet Union and allied powers — most of the band members grew up knowing former Nazis. They did not want to sound like other pop music. The band’s music draws influence and comparisons to electronic “new music” composers like Karlheinz Stockhausen and the chance music of John Cage, rock bands like The Velvet Underground, Captain Beefheart & His Magic Band, The Jimi Hendrix Experience and Sly & The Family Stone, the vamping funk rock of James Brown, and dub reggae from the likes of producer Lee “Scratch” Perry. While band members had great familiarity with jazz, they either couldn’t or didn’t want to play jazz. They did not work with outside producers or even record in commercial recording studios, instead forging their own path in a do-it-yourself way in which they maintained control over all aspects of their recordings. Always something of a cult phenomenon, CAN remained critical darlings. Curiously, or maybe not so much, the band’s audience has primarily been male. Anyway, even nearly a half-century later the band’s music sounds stunningly fresh and impressive.
Original members Irmin Schmidt, Czukay and David Johnson came from backgrounds in modern classical music, each having studied at Darmstadt with Karlheinz Stockhausen. Drummer Jaki Liebezeit came from a background in jazz, departing a position in Manfred Schoof‘s band after deciding that the scrupulous avoidance of a rhythmic pulse in free jazz was too constraining. Guitarist Michael Karoli was a former student of Czukay’s who gave up studying law to be a musician instead. Schmidt was a working conductor and composer who visited New York City where he was introduced to underground rock and the pop art scene. He returned to West Germany inspired, and with Czukay committed to starting a rock band. Johnson soon departed as the band pursued more of a focus on rock than pure avant-garde electronics. Malcolm Mooney was an American traveling the world under the alias Desse Barama to try to avoid being drafted into the military during the Vietnam War, and ended up connecting with CAN partly out of confusion — he wanted to find a visual artist’s studio but ended up in a musical studio. Although not intending to be a singer when he arrived in Germany, and having no real experience as such, Mooney helped the band coalesce its unique syncretic approach to music with a strong sense of rhythm. Anxiety about returning to America and being drafted eventually necessitated Mooney’s departure. He was soon after replaced by “Damo” Suzuki. An anarchist by disposition, Damo had left home dissatisfied with Japanese culture through a connection with a pen pal in Sweden. He had made his way to Germany where he frequently busked on the streets of Cologne and also was involved in a theater orchestra/band. Holger Czukay encountered him on the street and invited him to sign at a concert that evening, with no rehearsal.
Most band members came from a middle-class backgrounds (in one case more upper class). This gave them access to unique opportunities and allowed them to overcome obstacles that would have caused the demise of other bands. For instance, Damo was very nearly deported before Irmin’s connections to West German state radio lead to a high-level government intervention that allowed Damo to remain. Another sometimes overlooked aspect of the band’s history is that they formed in the wake of the so-called West German “Economic Miracle,” which partly stemmed from the Marshall Plan but was primarily a function of the USA forgiving WWII debtsand using West Germany (and Japan, and later South Korea) as special economic development zones — something explicitly and purposefully denied to the UK and France. In that climate of economic abundance there were funds and materials floating around for artistic projects. The band maintained a very collective approach to music-making. Everyone’s contributions were considered at an equal level. There was no band hierarchy or designated leader. Compositions, production and similar efforts were credited to the entire band regardless of specific individual contributions. They also exactly equally shared band income, at least once Hildegard Schmidt became manager.
Achieving modest popularity in West Germany and the United Kingdom, they had some minor commercial success with recordings but had only one regional “hit” song with “I Want More.” As the 70s rolled on, new members Rosko Gee and Reebop Kwaku Baah (both formerly of Traffic) joined in. Czukay left the band by the end of 1977.
The band formally split up in 1979. Irmin Schmidt then founded Spoon Records, and, via a distribution arrangement with Mute Records, CAN recordings are now more available than ever. A few archival releases dribbled out in the early 80s, as well as some compilations. A reunion instigated by originally vocalist Malcolm Mooney happened in the late 80s that lead to a new album. A few additional reunion recordings of individual songs and sporadic reunion concerts took place too. The former band members mostly pursued solo and other new musicals projects, and often collaborated.
Born: February 26, 1932, Kingsland, AR, United States
Died: September 12, 2003, Nashville, TN, United States
Johnny Cash, The Man in Black, is an iconic figure in American popular music. His deep bass-baritone voice and his bold — if sometimes contradictory — image made him a legend. He was raised on a New Deal cotton farm in Dyess, Arkansas. He served in the U.S. Air Force in Germany. He settled in Memphis, Tennessee and there broke into the music business. He was highly popular in the 1960s and early 1970s, but his popularity waned in his later years before a surprise comeback in the 1990s. Though ostensibly a “country” musician, he never quite fit the standard mold of a country artist. He didn’t sing with a country yodel or affected twang, and he usually didn’t wear a cowboy hat or cowboy boots. Even posthumously he still has a significant following of listeners with no interest in country music in general. His music doesn’t always appeal to very young listeners. Many only appreciate him when they get older. His career never depended on the Nashville country music establishment, which bolstered his image as a singular and unshakable personality who always set his own rules and did things his own way. Unlike other stars, like Elvis or Willie Nelson, Cash never maintained a big entourage. It was always just him.
Much of Cash’s music is built around a simple “boom-chicka-boom” rhythm, with instrumentation that lacks the twang, pedal steel guitar, fiddle, and other elements frequently associated with mainstream country music. He had no formal musical training. Lyrically, Cash’s music often focuses on law breakers, the ordinary working man, the christian religion, work, love, and liberty. Through much of that, he blends a lot of humor, down-to-Earth wisdom and rural pride. In his second autobiography he said,
“I endorse Kris Kristofferson‘s line about me, ‘He’s a walking contradiction, partly truth and partly fiction.’ I also like Rosanne‘s line, ‘He believes what he says, but that don’t make him a saint.'”
He struggled with drug addictions much of his life, and had numerous health problems in his old age.
Cash’s recorded catalog can be difficult to encapsulate. For one, he recorded a lot. Many damn his full-length albums with faint praise: lots are good, but few are consistently great. Some critics particularly dismiss his albums of the 1960s, though Cash disagreed and retorted that his 60s concept albums are some of the works he’s most proud of. Regardless of the specifics, even the lesser albums tend to have at least a few good songs. But this often leaves listeners grasping for compilations, many of which gravitate to a Cash cannon that omits a surprising amount of excellent work. Of course, there are the prison albums. He made three (or four), and two were his biggest commercial successes and the bedrock of much of his lasting fame.
Country Boy: The Early Years; 1950s
Cash’s big break came when he landed a recording deal with the iconic Memphis label Sun Records, run by Sam Phillips, the label that was at the epicenter of early rock ‘n roll. He also was in The Million Dollar Quartet, with the label’s other biggest stars, though he isn’t distinctly audible on any extant recordings of that group. Though Cash had an interest in gospel music, his earliest sides were mostly country with a rock ‘n roll undercurrent and a whole lot of signature Sun Records reverb. He soon signed over to the major label Columbia Records when his early success presented that opportunity.
A guide by Syd Fablo, Bruno Bickleby, and Patrick.
This is a guide to the music of Ornette Coleman. Albums are listed chronologically by recording date, broken down into multiple periods of his life and career and supplemented with biographical information. Outtake and various artists collections are shown indented and with smaller font and images. Bootlegs are listed, indented, but images and details are provided for only a few selected bootlegs that are of particular significance. Guest and sideman appearances are listed separately toward the end. Book, film/video/TV, and web site resources about or featuring Ornette are listed at the end. The authors also provide curators’ picks and some other items of interest at the end. While there are some compilations and box sets of Ornette’s work available, note that (with one exception) most focus on only a narrow period of time or are explicitly record label specific — the most significant of the label-specific ones being Beauty Is a Rare Thing: The Complete Atlantic Recordings. It is somewhat unfortunate that many of Coleman’s recordings are currently out of print. Moreover, unlike the deluge of archival, outtake and bonus material issued for certain other famous musical contemporaries of Ornette, there has been comparatively little of such material by him officially released to date.
A Brief Biography
Birth Name: Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman
Born: March 19, 1930 (or possibly March 9, 1930), Fort Worth, TX.
Died: June 11, 2015, New York, NY.
Ornette received almost no formal musical training, and was a noted autodidact. Reports of him being unable to read music are often exaggerated in order to present him as a kind of primitive musical savant, rather than as someone from humble roots who willfully bucked convention. Though he began playing music professionally while still a teenager, it was not until he was in his late 20s that he recorded as a bandleader and he was almost 30 years old before he found success as a solo act — rather late by typical jazz standards. His music was resisted and disliked by many, but he showed an uncommon amount of “grit” in sticking with it despite adversities and setbacks. Listeners tend to have a “love him or hate him” sort of reaction. Usually described as shy (i.e., introverted), he also struck many as an unusual guy for his mannerisms and outlook on life. He eventually developed his own musical theory that he dubbed “Harmolodics”, which he insisted can be applied to how one conducts their own life and to other artistic forms. Often he described himself as a composer who performs. “Lonely Woman” was his first “Harmolodic” composition, and is perhaps his best-known song. One-time collaborator Pat Methenysaid about him, “Ornette is the rare example of a musician who has created his own world, his own reality, his own language – effective to the point where emulation and absorbtion [sic] of it is not only impossible, it is simply too daunting a task for most musicians to even consider.” His career (and fortunes) ebbed and flowed, with periods of intense activities and long stretches of public inactivity. He nonetheless came to be regarded as one of America’s greatest musical innovators. He also had a considerable art collection, and partly due to those interest notable contemporary artworks were reproduced on many of his albums, on the cover, back and/or inserts. At least after achieving career success, he was a dapper dresser, often wearing brightly colored custom made suits. His sister Truvenza (Trudy) Coleman also had a musical career, though she did not work with her brother professionally.
🎷🎷🎷 = top-tier; an essential
🎷🎷 = second tier; enjoyable but more for the confirmed fan; worthwhile after you’ve explored the essentials and still want more
🎷 = third tier; a lesser release, for completists only
This here be a guide to the recorded music of The Red Crayola/Red Krayola — abbreviated as RC or RK. Releases are arranged chronologically by recording date (not release date), broken up into rough “eras”. The groupings correspond to major shifts in the geographic location of the band. A legend is provided, as are recording credits, where available.
A Brief History
The Red Crayola (sometimes spelled “The Red Krayola”) are an exceptionally long-lived rock band. Their origins were in the psychedelic mid-/late-1960s, formed in Texas by university students engaged with the burgeoning countercultural movement. The band broke up and reformed, and then effectively dissolved by the end of the 1960s. But Mayo Thompson, who worked in the visual arts (he was an assistant to Robert Rauschenberg) and also dabbled with a solo career, resurrected the band name in the mid-1970s. For about fifty years Thompson continued the band in various incarnations across different continents. In the later 70s and through all of the 80s, the band was based out of Europe, then returned to the United states permanently in the early 90s. The always band fit into the musical “underground”, and was never about commercial success. Mayo Thompson endorsed one critic’s description of the band’s music as “not practical”. Actually, the band’s political outlook became explicitly leftist/communist. But they tended to rely on wacky, dadaist humor and “performance art” techniques, eschewing virtuoso performance. The band frequently emphasized equal sharing of credit, regardless of contributions, so many releases intentionally do not credit individual songwriters, or even which musicians appear on which songs playing which instruments (a practice that ended only with Introduction in 2006). This was part of an over-arching inclusionist sensibility.
Welcome to a humble guide to the music of Public Enemy, one of the most iconic, innovative, and long-running hip-hop groups in history. This guide focuses on albums, rather than singles. Links to other resources are provided at the end. Credits listed below are accurate to a point; the band tended to skip attribution — and often intentionally obfuscate — who contributed to producing individual tracks and entire albums. Information on available releases is current for the United States as of early 2016, and focuses on physical formats.
A Brief History
Public Enemy (PE), formed in “Strong Island” [Long Island], NY, in 1982, emerged at the forefront of “conscious” or “positive” hip-hop. Biographer Tim Grierson wrote, they had “little interest in the materialism and bloodshed that had quickly become two of [hip-hop’s] major selling points.” Instead, PE wrote songs mostly about political and social topics. At the same time their music earned a reputation for being dense and hard, as in the most densely layered in all of hip-hop. At the peak of their fame in the late 1980s and early 1990s, they were deemed controversial by some — partly a conscious strategy — and became embroiled in quite a few scandals — some deserved and some not. As much as they tried to make intelligent music, sometimes looking back it doesn’t seem as intelligent as it aims to be (though usually it is). They have survived for decades, innovated hip-hop music and various music production and distribution techniques, and fallen off from widespread public consciousness in later years. Chuck D has engaged in various other projects, from speaking at conferences to TV hosting and more, and Flavor Flav starred in a number of “reality” TV shows (“The Surreal Life,” “Strange Love,” and “Flavor of Love”), a short-lived sitcom (“Under One Roof”) and launched some restaurants (he is a trained chef) that quickly closed. Chuck D has maintained an anti-drugs (including anti-alcohol) approach, though Flavor Flav has had many drug abuse problems and his TV appearances are rather at odds with the core of Public Enemy’s artistic stance. And yet, given that Chuck D has said that Flavor Flav “is the street,” the group’s willingness to include someone from a different sort of background faced with attendant challenges is worthy of respect. The group was (and is) more than just Chuck (the MC) and Flavor (the hype man), though a self-serving (unaccountable and even hypocritical) opacity falls across much of their work as to who is involved (or not involved) in actually making the music on recordings — the credits that follow are accordingly incomplete. There have been falling-outs, bitter rivalries, members ejected then later brought back, new members absorbed — accounts of those happenings vary widely and former members disagree with a few of the “official” accounts. Technically, Chuck D and Flavor Flav are the band, in terms of who signs the contracts, and the others are their employees. Professor Griff was forced out in the early 1990s, but he returned seven years later. Hank Shocklee was perhaps the major innovator in terms of producing the beats on records from the band’s peak, though a combination of legal issues related to sampling, theft of the vinyl the band used for samples, and differences of opinion about whose contributions made the band successful, he left in the early 1990s. Whether directly related or not, the band only briefly maintained both commercial and critical appeal following that split. And despite all this PE has made good music decades after they formed. Most interestingly, they have taken bold steps to maintain independence from the corporate, major-label music world while still touring and recording. There are few hip-hop acts as long-lived or as deeply beloved by fans.
⊕⊕⊕ = top-tier; an essential
⊕⊕ = second-tier; enjoyable but more for the confirmed fan; worthwhile after you’ve explored the essentials and still want more
⊕ = third-tier; a lesser album, for completists, with perhaps only one or so notable songs